For a system to be able to understand, it must not be programmed to perform a job. It needs to be programmed to learn how to perform the task. The system must use a more refined type of machine learning to do this. The system can perceive patterns in the information to understand how to perform a job. Or, more especially, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), are processing devices.

They can be hardware modeled based on the structure of the cortex that is the brain but on smaller scales or algorithms. The contemporary source of ANNs depends on a model of the neuron called a perceptron. Since the first version created by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts, their entries were 1 or 0. Each entry/dendrite also had a weight between +1 and -1. The entry is therefore multiplied by its weight, and the amount of weighted inputs has been inserted into a template.

The perceptron, therefore, requires multiple binary inputs and produces a single binary output that is the weighted average of its multiple inputs. ANNs is nothing more than interconnected layers in a perceptron. By varying their weights and limits, we can obtain different models of decision making. The outputs of a hidden layer can also be fed into a hidden layer other than the perceptron. The first layer on a perceptron makes very simple decisions, weighing its input evidence. These outputs are then fed to a second layer, which makes a decision by weighing the results of the first layer.

Following this method, a perceptron on its second layer can decide on a more complex and abstract level than its perceptron on its first layer. The greater the number of layers of perceptrons, the greater the decision-making capacity, something that is applicable in several areas. But why is it only now that deep learning is flourishing? One answer is that with the increase in computing power, it is possible to process results in and out quickly. Even more importantly, they played a substantial role in improving Artificial Intelligence. Tasks and capabilities that were once considered to be human domains are now being carried out by Deep Neural Networks.

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